Nanoscale Drug Delivery and Hyperthermia: The Materials Design and Preclinical and Clinical Testing of Low Temperature-Sensitive Liposomes Used in Combination with Mild Hyperthermia in the Treatment of Local Cancer.

Chelsea D. Landon1, Ji-Young Park2, David Needham 3, Mark W. Dewhirst*, 1, 2, 3
1 Department of Pathology
2 Department of Radiation Oncology
3 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University,Durham, NC 27710, USA

© 2011 Landon et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Box 3455, Duke University Medical Center, 201 MSRB I, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Tel: 919-684-4180; Fax: 919-684-8718; E-mail:


The overall objective of liposomal drug delivery is to selectively target drug delivery to diseased tissue, while minimizing drug delivery to critical normal tissues. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of temperaturesensitive liposomes in general and the Low Temperature-Sensitive Liposome (LTSL) in particular. We give a brief description of the material design of LTSL and highlight the likely mechanism behind temperature-triggered drug release. A complete review of the progress and results of the latest preclinical and clinical studies that demonstrate enhanced drug delivery with the combined treatment of hyperthermia and liposomes is provided as well as a clinical perspective on cancers that would benefit from hyperthermia as an adjuvant treatment for temperature-triggered chemotherapeutics. This review discusses the ideas, goals, and processes behind temperature-sensitive liposome development in the laboratory to the current use in preclinical and clinical settings.

Keywords: Low Temperature-Sensitive Liposomes, Hyperthermia, Drug Delivery, Cancer.